Plan for Risk Management and Response to Natural Disasters
The State is better prepared to cope with natural disasters
Prevention works and structuring of the new system of prevention, monitoring, alert and response to natural disasters
To protect the population from extreme weather and hydrometeorological events, the Plan for Risk Management and Response to Natural Disasters, launched in August, involves actions to map risk areas and provide the country with a structured system of prevention, monitoring, alert and response to natural disasters.
A total of R$ 18.8 billion will be invested by 2014, divided into four areas: prevention, mapping, monitoring and alert and response.
Structural works to prevent floods and landslides, as well as to improve water security in the nine states of the semiarid region and in Maranhão to prevent the impacts of drought, will receive investments worth R$ 15.6 billion.
In the case of works to reduce the risk of flooding and landslides, the priority will be the 170 municipalities grouped in 17 hydrographic basins, where 74% of deaths by natural disasters were reported between 1991 and 2010.
About 42% of the works have already been selected and will cover all states in the Northeast, plus Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Santa Catarina.
The hydrological and geological mapping of areas at risk of landslides on slopes, flash floods, floods and inundation are critical for planning prevention, monitoring and alert and response actions.
Geological Risk: areas at risk of landslides on slopes have already been mapped and an intervention plan has been developed for over 200 cities. The goal by 2014 is to reach 821 municipalities, where 94% of the deaths occurred and 88% of the population was left homeless and displaced between 1991 and 2010. Seven situation rooms have been established in the states of the North and Northeast, and more than 3,000 professionals have been trained in civil defense.
Hydrological Risk: the mapping of flood risk areas has been carried out in hydrological basins in 22 states, and mapping of all priority basins is scheduled to be completed by December 2012. The National Atlas covering 26 states and the Federal District will be finalized in 2013.
MONITORING AND ALERT
The monitoring and alert system seeks to anticipate as much as possible the risk of natural disasters, managing information in order to prepare the population and ensure better response conditions to natural disasters. The system consists of two core and complementary structures: the National Center for Natural Disaster Monitoring and Alerts (Centro Nacional de Monitoramento e Alertas de Desastres Naturais - CEMADEN) and the National Center for Disaster and Risk Management (Centro Nacional de Gerenciamento de Riscos e Desastres - CENAD).
CEMADEN: responsible for the continuous monitoring of threats and issuing advance alerts of natural disasters, the Center has been operating since December 2011 in Cachoeira Paulista (SP) and is currently being enhanced. CEMADEN works 24/7 and issues flash flood, landslide and flood alerts 2-6 hours in advance. In case of risk of crop failure and interruption of water supply in the semiarid region, the alerts are issued two months in advance.
CENAD: located in Brasília, it is responsible for managing information about risks and disasters generated by CEMADEN, in order to prepare the population and respond to disasters through joint action with states and municipalities. The Center has a team of 70 people and operates 24/7.
Investments in the system focus on expanding the equipment structure, encouraging scientific and technological research into natural disasters, and promoting the domestic production of equipment and partnerships with local communities to monitor events.
Future purchases include 9 weather radars; 4,100 rain gauges, both automatic and semi-automatic; 286 hydrological stations and geotechnical devices; 100 agri-meteorological stations; and 500 soil moisture sensors.
It involves the coordination and implementation of actions to respond to natural disasters.
National Emergency Force: includes professionals from the Brazilian Geological Service (Serviço Geológico do Brasil - CPRM), CE-MADEN, CENAD, ANA, MDS and other agencies that provide coordinated support to local teams for risk assessment, incident reports and removal of people affected. The Force worked successfully in January 2012 during the floods in Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro.
National SUS Force: 6 field hospitals and a permanent stock of medicines will be available. More than 300 professionals have already been trained in crisis management, and 15 response teams permanently on call have been established.
Armed Forces and National Security Force: will receive more equipment, supplies and staff to provide support in emergency situations.
Municipal Civil Defenses: are being upgraded through the provision of equipment such as 4x4s, GPS, cameras and laptops.
Payment Card: streamlines the purchase and delivery of essential items. 422 municipalities and 18 states have already received the card. In 2012 the Federal Government has already transferred R$ 272.4 million through the card to 102 municipalities and 17 states affected by heavy rainfall or drought.
My House, My Life: 50,000 housing units have been set aside for families affected by natural disasters. Families with income up to R$ 3,275 will be exempted from paying back the benefit. States and municipalities are required to provide infrastructure, land plots and social rent until the families are finally resettled.