New social indicators
Improved quality of life gains more evidences
Lower child mortality and fertility rates coupled with better household surrounding conditions show that the quality of life of Brazilians is improving at a steady pace
LOWER INFANT MORTALITY RATE
Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births fell from 29.7 in 2000 to 15.6 in 2010. This rate is lower than the target set for 2015 in the Millennium Development Goals, of 15.7 per 1,000 live births.
The sharpest drop was recorded in the Northeast (-58.6%), which still has the highest rate in Brazil: 18.5 per 1,000 live births.
FERTILITY RATE DOWN 20% IN THE PAST DECADE
The fertility rate reduced from 2.38 children per woman to 1.9 between 2000 and 2010. The number is lower than the population replacement rate, which is estimated at 2.1 children per woman.
A decrease was recorded in all regions over the period: 23.4% in the Northeast; 21.8% in the North; 20.6% in the South; 19.0% in the Southeast; and 14.5% in the Central-West.
Another important change was the shift in the fertility rejuvenation trend observed in 2000. The fertility pattern recorded in 2010 shows that the age of women giving birth has risen in relation to 2000, when 72.4% of pregnancies occurred among women up to 30 years of age. In 2010, this percentage fell to 68.7%, indicating a relative increase in the incidence of pregnancy among women over 30 years.
URBAN CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLD SURROUNDINGS
The quality of households can be assessed based on the characteristics of their surroundings, identified by mobility conditions and the supply of infrastructure (site identification, street lighting, paving, curb, sidewalk and wheelchair ramp) and by environmental conditions (landscaping, existence of manholes/culverts, open sewers and garbage dumped in public areas).
Some noteworthy characteristics include:
• street lighting is the most common infrastructure characteristic, available in the surroundings of 96.3% of households;
• 81.7% of urban households are located in paved streets;
• wheelchair ramps are available in the surroundings of only 4.7% of households;
• there is a low incidence of garbage dumping in the streets (5.0%) and of open sewer (11.0%).
There is a consistent relationship between the conditions of the households surroundings and household income per capita. In general, the lower the income the higher the presence of inappropriate characteristics in the surroundings of households - such as open sewer or garbage dumped in the streets.
Differences by size of municipality
The conditions in the surroundings of households also differ according to the size of the municipality.
Infrastructure and mobility: the highest levels of street lighting (97.1% of households), paving (92.8%), curbs (85.8%), sidewalks (82.9%), site identification (79.9%), and wheelchair ramps (8.6%) are found in municipalities with population over one million.
At the other extreme, in municipalities with population up to 20,000, mobility conditions of the urban population are less suitable.
Environment: the percentage of households with garbage dumped in surrounding areas increases with the size of the municipality: for those with population up to 20,000 (3.0%) to one million (7,4%). In municipalities with population over one million this proportion drops to 4.8%.
As for the existence of open sewer, the lowest proportion of households affected by this problem is found in cities with population over one million (7.8%) and the highest in cities with population between 500,000 and one million (14.3%).
There are significant regional inequalities in the characteristics of household surroundings.
Environment: the smaller regional difference regards the existence of accumulated garbage in the streets, which affects 7.8% of households in the North and 3.7% in the Central-West. The largest regional difference refers to the existence of open sewers, which affects one third of households in the North and only 2.9% in the Central-West.
Infrastructure and mobility: the surroundings of households in the North and Northeast regions are less appropriate than in other regions, with an emphasis on the difference in the percentage of households surroundings with wheelchair ramps, which is low in all regions, but negligible in the North and Northeast.
MORE BRAZILIANS RETURN TO THE COUNTRY
The number of international immigrants increased from 143,600 between 1995 and 2000 to 286,500 between 2005 and 2010. Of these, 65.1% were Brazilians returning from abroad. Between 1995 and 2000 this percentage was 61.2%.
United States (25%), Japan (20%) and Paraguay (12%) are the main countries of origin of international immigrants. Brazilians represent 84.2% of immigrants from the United States, 89.1% from Japan and 77% from Portugal. Only 25.1% of the 15,753 immigrants from Bolivia were Brazilians.