Employment and income in metropolitan areas
More jobs and less income inequalities in the labor market in large cities
Increase in formal jobs and in the number of workers contributing to social security
The share of registered private-sector workers in total employment rose from 39.7% in 2003 to 48.5% in 2011. Over the same period, the percentage of workers contributing to social security increased from 61.2% to 71.0%.
Lowest unemployment rate in 2011
The average unemployment rate dropped by half between 2003 and 2011, from 12.4% to 6.0%.
São Paulo (14.1% to 6.2%) and Recife (13.8% to 6.5%) provide the clearest examples of the drop in unemployment observed in all metropolitan areas between 2003 and 2011. Regional disparities also decreased over the same period.
Increasing participation of women in the labor market
Between 2003 and 2011, the share of women in the economically active population (EAP) (all women aged over 10 who were working or looking for a job) increased by 17.3%, while the male labor force increased by 9.7%. Women’s participation in the labor force increased from 44.4% in 2003 to 46.1% in 2011.
Over the same period, the share of women in the labor force increased from 43.0% to 45.4%. Salvador is the metropolitan area with the highest percentage of working women, 47.0%, while Rio de Janeiro has the lowest percentage, 44.3%.
Differences in labor income decrease
The average real income of women increased by 24.9% between 2003 and 2011, more than that of men. The average income of women stood at 72.3% of that of men in 2011, constituting a less unequal situation than in 2003, when the rate was 70.8%.
Race-and color-based income inequalities also decreased. Between 2003 and 2011, the income of Afro-descendants and mulatto individuals grew more than that of whites.
More schooled workers
In 2003, 46.7% of the employed population had 11 or more years of schooling, a percentage that grew to 60.7% in 2011. Workers with a college degree stand out in this group, as their share in the employed population rose from 13.8% in 2003 to 18.6% in 2011.